“Findings from University of Iowa Update Understanding of Mental Health Diseases and Conditions (The Role of Mental Health Counseling In College Students’ Academic Success: an Interrupted Time Series Analysis).” Mental Health Weekly Digest, 1 Nov. 2021, p. 142. Gale Academic OneFile, link.gale.com/apps/doc/A680793297/AONE?u=mbc&sid=summon&xid=ae057404.

The Role of Mental Health Counseling In College Students’ Academic Success: an Interrupted Time Series Analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 2021;68(5):562-570. Journal of Counseling Psychology can be contacted at: Amer Psychological Assoc, 750 First St NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242, USA. (American Psychological Association -www.apa.org; Journal of Counseling Psychology – www.apa.org/pubs/journals/cou/index.aspx)

Brown, Sarah.  The Real Campus Mental Health Crisis and New Models for Well-Being.  Chronicle of Higher Education (2020).  
Abstract Retrieved from Chronicle of Higher Education: https://store.chronicle.com/products/overwhelmed
The prevalence of anxiety and depression is rising across the country, particularly among young people. College students of all ages are more distressed than ever before, and increasing shares are enrolling with mental-health histories, in terms of diagnoses, treatment, and medication. But that is not the real campus mental-health crisis. The crisis is that the traditional model of providing services is broken. More and more overwhelmed students are seeking help, overwhelming their colleges. Even with growing staffs, counseling centers cannot keep up. Meanwhile, troubled students are left with unmet needs. This Chronicle report explores how to handle the surging demand for mental-health services, fulfill legal obligations, and make well-being a campus-wide priority. The work of identifying problems and offering help can’t fall solely to the counseling center. The report shows how centers can expedite the intake process while expanding and clarifying options like teletherapy. And it examines how new facilities and resources — like meditation rooms, workshops, apps, and courses — can help students deal with underlying issues from loneliness to trauma, and to build resilience. Not all moves are costly. And providing that support creates the kind of environment where a diverse population of students can succeed, academically and otherwise.

Davies, E., Read, J., & Shevlin, M. (2021). The impact of adverse childhood experiences and recent life events on anxiety and quality of life in university students. Higher education, 1–14. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-021-00774-9
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been repeatedly associated with a wide range of physical and mental health issues. Research has indicated high levels of anxiety and depression among university students, and a few studies have documented the relationship between ACEs and anxiety in the university student population. This study surveyed first year students at a university located in the most ethnically diverse district in England, with the second highest poverty rate. Eight hundred and fifty-eight responded; a response rate of 12%. The survey included questions about adverse childhood events, recent life stressors, current deprivation, quality of life, positive physical health and positive mental health, and used the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, a standardised measure. Thirty-seven percent of the responding students met the diagnosis for generalised anxiety disorder. In a multivariate multiple regression model, life stressors and childhood adversities were significantly associated with higher levels of anxiety and lower levels of physical and mental health. Only childhood adversities significantly predicted lower levels of quality of life. The findings highlight the importance of considering adverse childhood experiences in enhancing the wellbeing of the student population. Given the demographics of the student population at the University of East London, the high rates of ACEs and anxiety are likely to partially reflect poverty and racism. The implications of the findings for trauma-informed policies and practices in universities are discussed.  

Duncan, R.D. (2000). “Childhood maltreatment and college drop-out rates: Implications
for child abuse researchers.” ​ Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 15​ (9), 987-995.
This study, which followed 210 freshmen through 4 years of college, found that by their second semester in college, students who reported experiencing more than one form of childhood abuse (physical, sexual, or emotional) and those who were sexually assaulted but not otherwise maltreated were significantly less likely to be enrolled than nonvictims. By the end of their senior years, only 35% of multiple victims, 50% of those sexually abused only, and 60% of nonvictims were enrolled. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at the 2nd week of the freshman year were significantly related to college attendance at the 4th year, with a significant interaction between PTSD and abuse history as they related to remaining in or dropping out of college. Unless researchers studying the impact of childhood trauma in college samples are examining first-semester freshmen, it is likely that the research is being conducted with only the healthiest of survivors, which could lead to inaccurate conclusions about the abuse population as a whole.

Eisenberg, Daniel, S. Goldrick-Rab, S.K. Lipson, K. Broton.  “Too Distressed to Learn? Mental Health Among Community College Students.  Hope Lab, Healthy Minds Network at University of Michigan, American Association of Community College Trustees, Single Stop. March 2016.  https://hope4college.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/Wisconsin_HOPE_Lab-Too_Distressed_To_Learn.pdf
Too Distressed to Learn? assesses mental health among community college students. Authors Daniel Eisenberg, Sara Goldrick-Rab, Sarah Ketchen Lipson, and Katharine Broton conducted a survey of more than 4,000 students at 10 community colleges in California, Louisiana, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Wisconsin and Wyoming that underscores the need for greater mental health services for students. According to the report, almost 50 percent of students surveyed had a current or recent mental health condition.

Eisenberg, Daniel, E. Golberstein, J.B. Hunt.  “Mental Health and Academic Success in College.” The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, 2009, vol. 9, issue 1, 1-37. https://doi.org/10.2202/1935-1682.2191 
Mental health problems represent a potentially important but relatively unexplored factor in explaining human capital accumulation during college. We conduct the first study, to our knowledge, of how mental health predicts academic success during college in a random longitudinal sample of students. We find that depression is a significant predictor of lower GPA and higher probability of dropping out, particularly among students who also have a positive screen for an anxiety disorder. In within-person estimates using our longitudinal sample, we find again that co-occurring depression and anxiety are associated with lower GPA, and we find that symptoms of eating disorders are also associated with lower GPA. This descriptive study suggests potentially large economic returns from programs to prevent and treat mental health problems among college students, and highlights the policy relevance of evaluating the impact of such programs on academic outcomes using randomized trials. 

The Steve Fund and JED Foundation.  Equity in Mental Health Framework Pilot Project Implementation Report.  February 2021.  
Offers expert recommendations for America’s colleges and universities to better support the mental health and emotional well-being of students of color. It was created in partnership by The Steve Fund and JED. It is based on a systematic literature review, a survey of existing evidence-based programs, expert input from mental health and higher education leaders, and a survey of more than 1,000 students.
Link to Report: https://equityinmentalhealth.org/the-equity-in-mental-health-pilot-project-report/
Link to Framework: https://equityinmentalhealth.org/framework/

Goldsmith R.E, Freyd J.J., DePrince A.P. (2012). “Betrayal trauma: associations with psychological and physical symptoms in young adults.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 2012 Feb;27(3):547-67. doi: 10.1177/0886260511421672
Betrayal trauma, or trauma perpetrated by someone with whom a victim is close, is strongly associated with a range of negative psychological and physical health outcomes. However, few studies have examined associations between different forms of trauma and emotional and physical symptoms. The present study compared betrayal trauma to other forms of trauma as predictors of young adults’ psychological and physical symptoms, and explored potential mediators. A total of 185 university undergraduate students completed the Brief Betrayal Trauma Survey, the Trauma Symptom Checklist, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and the Pennebaker Inventory of Limbic Languidness. For each set of symptoms, simultaneous multiple regressions assessed the relative contributions of low versus high betrayal trauma to psychological and physical health reports. Structural equation models examined traumatic stress symptoms and alexithymia as mediators of the relationship between betrayal trauma and physical health symptoms. A total of 151 participants (82%) reported exposure to at least 1 of 11 forms of trauma queried (M = 2.08, SD = 1.94); 96 participants (51.9%) reported at least 1 betrayal trauma. Traumas characterized by high betrayal predicted alexithymia, anxiety, depression, dissociation, physical health complaints, and the number of days students reported being sick during the past month, whereas other traumas did not. Structural equation modeling revealed that traumatic stress symptoms and alexithymia mediated the association between betrayal trauma and physical health complaints. These results indicate that betrayal trauma is associated with young adults’ physical and mental health difficulties to a greater extent than are other forms of trauma. Results may inform assessment, intervention, and prevention efforts.

Gress-Smith, J. L., Roubinov, D. S., Andreotti, C., Compas, B. E., & Luecken, L. J.
(2015). Prevalence, severity and risk factors for depressive symptoms and insomnia in
college undergraduates. ​ Stress and Health​ , ​31​ (1), 63-70. doi:10.1002/smi.2509
Researchers conducted two studies to examine the prevalence, comorbidities,
and risk factors for insomnia and depressive symptoms in college students. The
first study looked at prevalence and comorbidity, and found that about one third
of students experienced depressive symptoms and about one fourth experienced
insomnia, with about one third of the sample reporting experiencing both at the
same time. The second study looked at how childhood adversity affects
depressive symptoms and insomnia both directly and indirectly. Results from the
second study suggest that childhood adversity is directly related to both insomnia
and depressive symptoms, and that this relationship may be partly explained by

Jolley, Amber L.. “The Relationship Between Trauma Exposure and College Student Adjustment: Factors of Resilience as a Mediator” (2017). Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Dissertation, Counseling & Human Services, Old Dominion University, DOI: 10.25777/73gd-0t27 
Full text available from Digital Commons:  https://digitalcommons.odu.edu/chs_etds/9
Adjustment to college is an important developmental task for students entering institutions of higher education. More than half of students who enter college report exposure to a potentially traumatic event (PTE), with many students reporting multiple event exposure (Banyard & Cantor, 2004). Many students adjust well to college despite experiencing PTEs, suggesting that certain factors may mitigate the effects of exposure. This study utilized archival data to explore the relationship between type of PTE, accumulation of PTEs, underlying factors of resilience, and adjustment to college in a national sample of treatment seeking college students. The data were analyzed using hierarchical regression and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). The results of the regression analyses indicated that type and accumulation of PTE were associated with increased adjustment difficulties when controlling for demographic variables. The presence of factors of resilience was predictive of lower adjustment difficulties following PTE exposure. The results of the MANCOVA analyses indicated type of PTE was predictive of levels of social support. The findings of this study may inform theories of adjustment, higher education policy and clinical practice.

Kalkbrenner, Mike & Thomas J. Hernández (2017) Community College Students’ Awareness of Risk Factors for Mental Health Problems and Referrals to Facilitative and Debilitative Resources, Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 41:1, 56-64, DOI:10.1080/10668926.2016.1179603.
The prevalence of school shootings and other campus violence incidents have called attention to the increasing number of college students who are living with Mental Health Disorders (MHDs). There is a substantial amount of literature on MHDs among college students who are attending 4-year universities. However, the literature is lacking research on MHDs among community college students. The purpose of the current study was to analyze archival data to investigate residential community college students’ awareness of MHDs and their willingness to refer a friend who was showing signs of an MHD to facilitative and debilitative resources. The results of a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) revealed that residential community college students who had high levels of awareness of MHDs were significantly more willing to refer a friend who was showing signs of an MHD to facilitative resources (for example taking them to the counseling center) compared to students with low levels of awareness. This finding was significant at the p = .000 level with a strong effect size, η2p = .13. In addition, male students were significantly more likely than female students to refer a friend who was showing signs of MHDs to debilitative resources (encouraging them to engage in risky behaviors). Implications for how community college counselors and administrators can take initiatives to increase students’ awareness of MHDs are discussed.

Karatekin, C. (2018). Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), Stress and Mental Health in College Students. Stress and Health, 34, 36–45. DOI: 10.1002/smi.2761 
The goal of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) could be used to identify college students at risk for mental health problems and whether current level of stress mediates the relationship between ACEs and mental health. Data on ACEs and mental health (depression, anxiety and suicidality) were collected at the beginning of the semester, and data on current stressors and mental health were collected toward the end of the semester (n = 239). Findings indicated that ACEs predicted worsening of mental health over the course of a semester and suggested current number of stressors as a mediator of the relationship between ACEs and mental health. Results suggest that screening for ACEs might be useful to identify students at high risk for deterioration in mental health. Results further suggest that stress-related interventions would be beneficial for students with high levels of ACEs and point to the need for more research and strategies to increase help-seeking in college students. 

Kauffman, B.Y., J. Bakhshaie, M.J. Zvolensky (2020).  The association between distress tolerance and eating expectancies among trauma-exposed college students with obesity. Journal of American College Health (2020). https://doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2020.1754223
Obesity is a significant health concern among college populations, and trauma-exposed students are particularly at risk for behaviors associated with weight gain. There is need for further understanding of factors that may contribute to increased obesity among this population. Participants: Participants included 139 trauma-exposed college students with obesity (76.3% females; Mage = 25.4 years, SD = 8.07). Method: The current cross-sectional study examined distress tolerance in terms of expectancies of eating to help manage negative affect and to lead to feeling out of control among trauma-exposed college students with obesity. Results: Results indicated that lower perceived distress tolerance was associated with greater expectancies of eating to help manage negative affect and to lead to feeling out of control. Conclusions: These findings suggest that distress tolerance may be a clinically significant target for treatment in order to better understand and treat expectancies of eating among trauma-exposed college students with obesity.

Leshner, Alan I. and L. A. Scherer, Eds.  2021.  Mental Health, Substance Use, and Wellbeing in Higher Education: Supporting the Whole Student.  A Consensus Study Report of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.  National Academies Press.  https://www.nationalacademies.org/our-work/supporting-the-whole-student-mental-health-and-well-being-in-stemm-undergraduate-and-graduate-education 
Student wellbeing is foundational to academic success. One recent survey of postsecondary educators found that nearly 80 percent believed emotional wellbeing is a “very” or “extremely” important factor in student success. Studies have found the dropout rates for students with a diagnosed mental health problem range from 43 percent to as high as 86 percent. While dealing with stress is a normal part of life, for some students, stress can adversely affect their physical, emotional, and psychological health, particularly given that adolescence and early adulthood are when most mental illnesses are first manifested. In addition to students who may develop mental health challenges during their time in postsecondary education, many students arrive on campus with a mental health problem or having experienced significant trauma in their lives, which can also negatively affect physical, emotional, and psychological wellbeing.

McBride, Paula E. (2019) Addressing the Lack of Mental Health Services for At-Risk Students at a Two-Year Community College: A Contemporary Review, Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 43:2, 146-148, doi.org/10.1080/10668926.2017.1409670.
Citation/Abstract Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1080/10668926.2017.1409670
The American Association of Community Colleges has determined over 40% of the population attending a post-secondary institution is enrolled in a two-year community college. The majority of this student population could be described as nontraditional, including first-generation students, underrepresented populations, and single parents working full or part-time jobs while attending classes. This student population is more likely to experience stress and anxiety, increasing their need for mental health services. Despite this demonstrated need, there has been little research conducted on two-year community college campuses relating to mental health services. The purpose of this article is to discuss the need for research on mental health needs and services at two-year community colleges.

Morton, Brenda, “The Grip of Trauma: How Trauma Disrupts the Academic Aspirations of Foster Youth” (2018). Faculty Publications – School of Education. 178.
The academic challenges foster youth encounter during their P-12 education have been widely reported. Yet, despite these challenges, the majority of foster youth desire postsecondary education. What is less known is the reason why so few foster youth alumni who desire a four-year college degree, achieve this goal. For the participants in this four-year longitudinal study, maltreatment, resulting in foster care placement, and the ensuing exposure to the foster care system, resulted in trauma histories and mental health diagnoses. Anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), were the most common diagnosis. The participants shared the ways in which these mental health challenges manifested throughout their college education. Of those in the study, almost half successfully graduated from college, a third dropped out, and only two remain enrolled. This study provides a unique and critical insight into the experiences of foster youth, enrolled in a four-year university, by sharing their stories. 

Raphael, Stacy and Sara Goldrick-Rab.  Beyond the Food Pantry: Social Work Case Management (March 2020). The Hope Center: For College, Community, and Justice.  Hope4College.com. https://hope4college.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/BeyondTheFoodPantry_CaseManagement.pdf
Trauma is a significant mental health phenomenon that should not be confused with the stress of a failed exam or a break-up with a significant other. Rather, trauma is “an event, series of events, or set of circumstances that is experienced by an individual as physically or emotionally harmful or life-threatening and that has lasting adverse effects on the individual’s functioning and mental, physical, social, emotional, or spiritual well-being.” Trauma also undermines a student’s sense of self and safety. Trauma-informed care, including case management, is a crucial support for students enduring basic needs insecurity. This brief explores the role that social work guidelines could play in student affairs case management with regard to addressing students’ basic needs.

Reyes, A.T., Muthukumar, V., Bhatta, T.R. et al. (2020). Promoting Resilience Among College Student Veterans Through an Acceptance-and-Commitment-Therapy App: An Intervention Refinement Study. Community Mental Health J 56, 1206–1214 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-020-00617-4
Military veterans’ stigmatized views on mental disorders and traditional mental health care considerably reduce veterans’ access to mental health services. The present study aimed to refine a previously developed non-stigmatizing smartphone-app intervention based on the principles of acceptance and commitment therapy for college student veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To this end, we tested the acceptability of the developed prototype using a mixed-method study design. A total of nine student veterans participated in the study by using the app intervention and completing pre-post study measures and a post-intervention qualitative interview. The results showed that the intervention was highly acceptable. The results of the qualitative data analysis highlighted relevant themes related to strategies for improving the content, delivery, and structure of the intervention. The results also showed that, despite a decrease in the participants’ adherence as the intervention progressed, there was a consistent improvement in the participants’ resilience, PTSD, and rumination. Based on the results, the intervention was revised for prospective feasibility and efficacy testing. Our results highlight the need to use a collaborative approach in the early stage of the development of self-management PTSD interventions.

Read, J. P., Ouimette, P., White, J., Colder, C., & Farrow, S. (2011). Rates of DSM-IV-TR Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Newly Matriculated College Students. Psychological trauma : theory, research, practice and policy, 3(2), 148–156. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021260
The negotiation of the freedoms and responsibilities introduced as adolescents begin college may be particularly challenging for those with a trauma history and traumatic stress sequelae (posttraumatic stress disorder; PTSD). The present study examined the prevalence of and risk for trauma and PTSD in a large sample of college students. Matriculating students (N = 3,014; 1,763 female, 1,251 male) at two U.S. universities completed online and paper assessments. Sixty-six percent reported exposure to a Criterion A trauma. Nine percent met criteria for PTSD. Female gender was a risk factor for trauma exposure. Gender and socioeconomic status (SES) were associated with trauma severity. Although in bivariate models, gender and SES were associated with PTSD, multivariate analyses suggested this risk was a function of trauma severity. Thus, students enter college with significant trauma histories and PTSD symptoms. Findings highlight the potential for outreach to incoming students with trauma and point to research directions to enhance understanding of the psychological needs of entering college students.

Schrag, R.J.V., T.E. Edmond (2018). Intimate Partner Violence, Trauma, and Mental Health Need Among Female Community College Students. Journal of American College Health Vol 66, Issue 7, 2018. 702-711. https://doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2018.1456443
Objective: The impact of interpersonal violence on college students has received considerable attention, yet no studies have been conducted among community college students, who comprise 40% of all American college students, and have unique risk factors and needs. Community College students are more likely to be women, people of color, working, parenting, and first generation college students. Participants: Data were collected from a simple random sample from four community colleges (n=435). Methods: A cross-sectional quantitative survey was used to assess the extent of intimate partner violence, trauma exposure, sexual violence, and associated mental health consequences among female students. Results: Over 27% of participants reported IPV in the past year, while 25% reported sexual assault and 34% reported other uncomfortable sexual experiences in their lifetime. Nearly 20%of participants were currently reporting PTSD symptoms. Conclusions: Community Colleges should work with service providers to build their capacity to respond to students’ needs.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. SAMHSA’s Concept of Trauma and Guidance for a Trauma-Informed Approach
(SMA) 14-4884. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services
Administration, 2014. https://ncsacw.samhsa.gov/userfiles/files/SAMHSA_Trauma.pdf
Addressing trauma requires a multi-pronged, multi-agency public health approach inclusive of public education and awareness, prevention and early identification, and effective trauma-specific assessment and treatment. In order to maximize the impact of these efforts, they need to be provided in an organizational or community context that is trauma-informed, that is, based on the knowledge and understanding of trauma and its far-reaching implications.

Smith, C. P., & Freyd, J. J. (2013). Dangerous safe havens: institutional betrayal exacerbates sexual trauma. Journal of traumatic stress, 26(1), 119–124. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.21778
Citation/Abstract Retrieved from National Library of Medicine/PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23417879/
Research has documented the profound negative impact of betrayal within experiences of interpersonal trauma such as sexual assault (Freyd, 1994, 1996; Freyd, DePrince, & Gleaves, 2007). In the current study of college women (N = 345, 79% Caucasian; mean age = 19.69 years, SD = 2.55), we examined whether institutional failure to prevent sexual assault or respond supportively when it occurs may similarly exacerbate posttraumatic symptomatology-what we call “institutional betrayal.” Almost half (47%) of the women reported at least one coercive sexual experience and another 21% reported no coercion, but at least one unwanted sexual experience (total reporting unwanted sexual experiences, N = 233). Institutional betrayal (e.g., creating an environment where these experiences seemed more likely, making it difficult to report these experiences) was reported across different unwanted sexual experiences (47% and 45% of women reporting coercion and no coercion, respectively). Those women who reported institutional betrayal surrounding their unwanted sexual experience reported increased levels of anxiety (R(2) = .10), trauma-specific sexual symptoms (R(2) = .17), dissociation (R(2) = .11), and problematic sexual functioning (R(2) = .12). These results suggest that institutions have the power to cause additional harm to assault survivors.

Read, J. P., Ouimette, P., White, J., Colder, C., & Farrow, S. (2011). Rates of DSM-IV-TR Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Newly Matriculated College Students. Psychological trauma : theory, research, practice and policy, 3(2), 148–156. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021260
Link/Citation/Free Full Text by National Library of Medicine/PMC: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4301258/
The negotiation of the freedoms and responsibilities introduced as adolescents begin college may be particularly challenging for those with a trauma history and traumatic stress sequelae (posttraumatic stress disorder; PTSD). The present study examined the prevalence of and risk for trauma and PTSD in a large sample of college students. Matriculating students (N = 3,014; 1,763 female, 1,251 male) at two U.S. universities completed online and paper assessments. Sixty-six percent reported exposure to a Criterion A trauma. Nine percent met criteria for PTSD. Female gender was a risk factor for trauma exposure. Gender and socioeconomic status (SES) were associated with trauma severity. Although in bivariate models, gender and SES were associated with PTSD, multivariate analyses suggested this risk was a function of trauma severity. Thus, students enter college with significant trauma histories and PTSD symptoms. Findings highlight the potential for outreach to incoming students with trauma and point to research directions to enhance understanding of the psychological needs of entering college students.

Tubbs, J. D., Savage, J. E., Adkins, A. E., Amstadter, A. B., & Dick, D. M. (2019). Mindfulness moderates the relation between trauma and anxiety symptoms in college students. Journal of American college health 67(3), 235–245. https://doi.org/10.1080
Citation/Abstract/Free Full-Text by National Library of Medicine/PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6330246/
Objective: To explore the relations between trauma exposure and anxiety and depression among college students, and to determine whether trait mindfulness may moderate these relations. Participants: Self-report survey data from 2,336 college sophomores were drawn from a larger university-wide study (“Spit for Science”). Methods: We constructed multiple linear regression models using past-year trauma exposure, trait mindfulness, and their multiplicative interaction to predict current anxiety and depressive symptom severity, while controlling for covariates. Results: Mindfulness was associated with lower levels of depression and anxiety symptom severity. Trauma was a significant predictor of anxiety, but not depression, and high levels of mindfulness attenuated the association between trauma exposure and higher anxiety symptom severity. Conclusions: These results have implications for the treatment and prevention of anxiety among trauma-exposed college students and provide a basis for further research into the mechanisms through which mindfulness may facilitate positive mental health.

Warnecke, A., R. Lewine (2019).  “First Semester Academic Functioning of College Students: The Role of Stressful and Traumatic Life Events.”  International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, v. 13, n. 2.  
The present study sought to better understand the role of stress and trauma history and resiliency among students from low socioeconomic backgrounds and their college academic outcomes. Self-reported history of stressful and traumatic life events, resilience, and demographic factors were collected at orientation for 54 “poor” students as determined by Federal standards. Academic record information was collected at the end of the first semester. The study sample was similar to other students in terms of event exposure, self-reported mental health symptoms, and resilience. Event exposure significantly correlated with course withdrawals, low grades (Fs and Ds), and mean grade point average. This research has implications for educators, mental health professionals, and college administrators.

Watt, T., Ceballos, N., Kim, S., Pan, X., & Sharma, S. (2019). The Unique Nature of Depression and Anxiety among College Students with Adverse Childhood Experiences. Journal of child & adolescent trauma, 13(2), 163–172. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40653-019-00270-4
Citation/Abstract/Full-Text by ResearchGate:
It is well established that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) contribute to the development of mental disorders in adulthood. However, less is known about how childhood trauma impacts the mind and the body, whether the resulting mental disorders have different characteristics than those occurring without these antecedent conditions, and if treatment modalities need to reflect the unique nature of mental disorders rooted in trauma. Survey and biomarker data were gathered from a sample of college students (n = 93) to explore the relationship between childhood trauma and mental health. We examine how neuroimmune systems (inflammation and neuroplasticity) relate to depression and anxiety and whether these associations vary for those with and without a history of childhood trauma. Findings reveal that students with 4 or more ACEs are more likely to have depression and anxiety than students without these experiences. In addition, we find that inflammation (CRP) and neuronal health (BDNF) are associated with mental health disorders among students with four or more ACEs, but not for students without this history.
These findings suggest that mental disorders associated with four or more ACEs may be uniquely tied to physiological processes, and consequently, warrant tailored treatments. The implications for mental health intervention include, 1) screening for childhood trauma, inflammation, and neuronal health and 2) referral to treatments which are theoretically and empirically tied to the root causes of mental disorders rather than those designed merely to suppress their symptoms.